Dumbrava, Costica

Artificial intelligence at EU borders : overview of applications and key issues / author, Costica Dumbrava, EPRS European Parliamentary Research Service .-- Brussels : European Union, July 2021 .-- 41 p. ; 1 documento PDF

This paper provides an overview of EU initiatives on developing and deploying artificial intelligence
(AI) technologies to improve border control and border security. First, it outlines the historical
development of identification technologies (passport, fingerprints, photography, polygraphy, face
recognition) in the social and political context. Second, it outlines the EU policy on smart borders,
examining the EU’s centralised information systems and major information exchange mechanisms
for borders and security. Third, it surveys major EU initiatives on AI for borders by looking into four
categories of AI applications: 1) biometric identification (automated fingerprint and face
recognition); 2) emotion detection; 3) algorithmic risk assessment; and 4) AI tools for migration
monitoring, analysis and forecasting. Fourth, it discusses key issues raised by the development and
use of such AI applications, namely reliability issues (accuracy of technologies and data quality), and
fundamental rights issues (bias and discrimination, data protection and security, unlawful profiling,
and transparency in EU funding on AI research). The paper concludes with reflections on the broader
understanding of technologies, cautioning against the pitfalls of technological determinism and the
myth of technological neutrality.


10.2861/91831 doi

Inteligencia Artificial

control de fronteras
controles policiales
Unión Europea

Parlamento Europeo. Dirección General de Servicios de Estudios Parlamentarios
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